Moderator: Celia M. Divino, MD, FACS, New York, NY
Co-Moderator: Annesley W. Copeland, MD, FACS, Bethesda, MD

The traditional apprenticeship model of surgical training, allowing the trainee graded responsibility progressing under supervision, has been eroded in recent years under financial pressures, duty-hour restrictions, and due to other regulations. Consequently, surgical trainees have fewer opportunities in residency to exercise autonomy, a quality that is essential in independent clinical practice. This Panel Session will explore the different perspectives on autonomy and review the barriers to autonomy, as well as report on current efforts and proposed solutions to enhance opportunities for autonomy, in surgical training—not just operative autonomy but also the critical skills of decision making and professionalism.

Presentations and Speakers

Celia M. Divino, MD, FACS, New York, NY
Ajit K. Sachdeva, MD, FACS, FRCSC, Chicago, IL

Faculty Perspective—Technical/Nontechnical
Keith A. Delman, MD, FACS, Atlanta, GA

Resident Perspective
Edward S. Shipper, MD, San Antonio, TX

Patient Education
Annesley W. Copeland, MD, FACS, Bethesda, MD

Panel Discussions